In the United States, the Office of Bilateral Trade Affairs minimizes trade deficits by negotiating free trade agreements with new countries, supporting and improving existing trade agreements, promoting economic development abroad and other measures. For European countries, the entanglement of bilateral agreements has become so unbearable that they used the pan-European cumulative system (CEP) in 1997 and extended it to Turkey in 1999. The system has reconciled the various bilateral pacts into a multilateral agreement. Since 1999, a coat made up of 50% Hungarian, 30% Polish and 20% Turkish is considered 100% European. Afghanistan has bilateral agreements with the following countries and blocs: In December 2018, the government announced agreements with the three EFTA-EEA countries to address separation issues similar to those of the VA. It also announced an agreement with Switzerland on citizens` rights. In February 2019, an agreement was announced with the three EFTA-EEA countries on citizens` rights under a non-agreement scenario. With the 25% rule, we would propose 3.56%. The FRAND rule is fundamentally more attractive to the licensee, but there are some problems or concerns. At the beginning of a project, the risk is much higher than in the case of progress and commercialization. Higher-risk early-stage investments should be rewarded more than investments at a later stage where the risk is much lower.
If a licensee has invested everything and a taker can offer a ready-to-sale product, the total operating profit should be transferred to the licensee in accordance with the FRAND rule. The licensee will certainly not be satisfied with such an agreement. In practice, in this case, a profit-splitting contract is often concluded. In addition to creating a U.S. commodity market, expansion has helped spread the mantra of trade liberalization and promote open borders to trade. However, bilateral trade agreements can distort a country`s markets when large multinationals, with considerable capital and resources to operate on a large scale, enter a market dominated by smaller players.